How Clean and Safe is your water??

What is Water Treatment?

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.

Water quality refers to the chemicalphysicalbiological, and radiological characteristics of water.[1] It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.[2] It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance, generally achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystemssafety of human contact, and drinking water


Treatment for Drinking Water Production

Treatment for drinking water production involves the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce water that is pure enough for human consumption without any short term or long term risk of any adverse health effect. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspended solidsbacteriaalgaevirusesfungi, and minerals such as iron and manganese.

The processes involved in removing the contaminants include physical processes such as settling and filtrationchemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation and biological processes such as slow sand filtration.

Measures are taken to ensure water quality not only relate to the treatment of the water, but to its conveyance and distribution after treatment. It is therefore common practice to keep residual disinfectants in the treated water to kill bacteriological contamination during distribution.

World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are a general set of standards intended to apply where better local standards are not implemented. More rigorous standards apply across Europe, the USA and in most other developed countries. followed throughout the world for drinking water quality requirements.

Processes

 A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:


(a). Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting biological growth

(b). Aerationalong with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron when present with small amounts relatively of manganese

(c). Coagulation for flocculation or slow-sand filtration

(d). Coagulant aids, also known aspolyelectrolytes– to improve coagulation and for more robust floc formation

(e). Sedimentation for solids separation that is the removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc

(f). Filtration to remove particles from water either by passage through a sand bed that can be washed and reused or by passage through a purpose designed filter that may be washable.

(g). Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens.


Technologies for potable water and other uses are well developed, and generalized designs are available from which treatment processes can be selected for pilot testing on the specific source water. In addition, a number of private companies like ours, provide patented technological solutions for the treatment of specific contaminants. Automation of water and waste-water treatment is common in the developed world. Source water quality through the seasons, scale, and environmental impact can dictate capital costs and operating costs. End use of the treated water dictates the necessary quality monitoring technologies, and locally available skills typically dictate the level of automation adopted.

Constituent

Unit Processes

Turbidity and particles

Coagulation/ flocculation, sedimentation, granular filtration

Major dissolved inorganics

Softening, aeration, membranes

Minor dissolved inorganics

Membranes

Pathogens

Sedimentation, filtration, disinfection

Major dissolved organics

Membranes, adsorption



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